Windstorm Damage of May 20, 2001
Disease Makes Trees More Vulnerable to High Winds

Example 3: Shumard Oak On Residential Street

A close-up view of several of these wood-borer exit holes is shown at right. A tree with healthy, intact "skin" is not usually attacked by wood-boring beetles. 

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This tree was growing in the small strip of land between the fence and sidewalk, along a busy street. The wind had snapped it off about six feet off the ground. Notice the extensive area of bare, weathered wood just below the break, surrounded by scar tissue. Small holes in the bare wood are exit holes for adult wood-boring beetles.

Wood-borers that infect oaks generally bore directly into the sapwood of the tree, where they construct extensive galleries or tunnels, as shown in the photo at left. The galleries weaken the wood. Later, the beetle larvae mature and emerge from the tree as adults, leaving  large exit holes that invite other insects and fungi to invade the tree interior.

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